The history of Pyin Oo Lwin dates back to the pre-colonial period with the establishment of a military outpost near a small village between Lashio and Mandalay, in the Shan Hills. After Myanmar was taken over by the British, the town was converted into a permanent military post in 1897. It was also made the summer capital thanks to its cool weather. At that time, the town was called Maymyo after Colonel May, who was stationed here. Colonel May had served the crown remarkably during the Indian Rebellion of 1857. During this time, the town was brimming with an Anglo-Indian community. When the Japanese occupied Myanmar, many of these Anglo-Indians of Maymyo were incarcerated by the Japanese because of their loyalty to the British. Once Myanmar gained its independence, the government changed the town’s name to Pyin Oo Lwin.